UNESCO declared Cayo Santa
Maria "World Biosphere Reserve". Many animal species
among which at least 10 species belong to the endemic groups
of the country.
Exist important colonies of flamencos, seagulls, cormorants,
lizards, iguanas, mollusks and great lizard-cuckoo. The
ocean beds are filled with seaweeds and a wide variety of
mollusks, amphibians, reptiles and mammals.
Among the winged species, the Cuban Trogon (tocororo),
recognized as the national bird of Cuba, green woodpeckers
and sparrow hawks, as well as deer and hutias of different
varieties, and standing out, the hutia rata can be observed.